Everyone loves Python, and there are many reasons for it, such as its versatile, object-oriented, easy-to-learn, higher-order abstractions and metaprogramming capabilities to build large and complex systems, and its vast number of libraries that support data analysis, visualization, and manipulation.
However, it is not accompanied by built-in features required to accelerate custom web application development, hence why many programmers rely on Python’s frameworks to deal with the subtleties of execution. By automating redundant tasks, these frameworks cut development time and enable developers to focus greatly on application logic rather than routine elements.
In this article, we’ll cast a look at some of the best Python frameworks to go for in 2019.
Following the DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) principle, Django is an open-source and one of the most beloved web development frameworks for developing Python applications. It was designed to help developers take applications from concept to completion as quickly as possible.
Developers prefer it because of its plethora of ready-to-use libraries and vigorous features such as authentication support, content administration, template engine, URL routing, and database schema migration. Furthermore, Django has inherent support for PostgreSQL, Oracle, MySQL, and SQLite (and can support other databases via third-party drivers).
Also, Django takes security seriously and comes with security features like XSS prevention, CRSF prevention, etc., which are applied automatically to help you steer clear of common mistakes such as clickjacking, cross-site scripting, forgery, and SQL injection.
The framework evolves continually to be on track with the latest web/application development trends – a reason why it is extensively implemented in some of the busiest sites on the web like The Washington Times, Mozilla, Bitbucket, Disqus, Instagram, and Pinterest.
Available under the BSD license, Flask is a micro web framework, meaning it focuses on getting a few bare minimum things right, and leaves the rest to the developer so, if you know what you are doing and want to lovingly build your web app by choosing a component of your choice than Flask is the perfect option for you.
It comes with a built-in development server and debugger. However, there is no built-in database interaction, but the flask-sqlalchemy package will connect an SQL database to a web application built on Flask.
Also, it supports unit testing, allows establishing secure client-side sessions, and is compatible with Google App Engine. Inspired by the Sinatra Ruby framework, it relies upon the Jinja2 template and Werkzeug WSGI toolkit.
As compared to Django, this framework is best suited for small and easy projects.
If Flask’s approach isn’t minimal enough for you and that you’d still like more control, then Bottle is the perfect choice for you. Originally meant for building web APIs, Bottle is designed to be very small and hence tries to execute everything in a single document without any dependencies, except that on the Python Standard Library.
The out-of-the-box functionalities include adapter support for third-party template engines and WSGI/HTTP servers. Also, with a built-in webserver (which can be easily replaced) and plugin support for varied databases, the framework allows simple access from forms, headers, cookies, and file uploads. It offers request-dispatching routes that come with URL-parameter support. Like Flask, you will be coding significantly closer to the hardware.
If you’re making a simplistic small personal-use app (say, less than five hundred lines of code) with no special requirements, then this small-scale or minimalistic Python framework might make a lot of sense to you. In addition to building small apps, it is also a perfect fit for learning the organization of web frameworks and prototyping.
TurboGears is a highly flexible Python framework that is mostly selected by developers when they need to develop extensible data-driven web apps rapidly.
It enables developers to streamline web app development utilizing diverse Java development tools. The framework pursues an MVC design and incorporates vigorous formats, a flexible and powerful ORM, and Ajax for the server and program.
Furthermore, the data-driven full-stack framework uses elements such as Genshi, Repoze, SQLAlchemy, and WebOb to easily and quickly develop apps (much faster than other existing frameworks) requiring database connectivity.
Backed by complete, extensive documentation, this open-source framework is highly respected in the community and ideal for enterprise application development.
Released in 2007, Web2py is an open-source, full-stack framework with its own full-featured web-based IDE, which includes a code editor, debugger, and one-click deployment. It’s almost like Android Studio, which is more of a complete environment than just a framework.
It’s a cross-platform framework that underpins various platforms, including Windows, Unix/Linux, Mac, and so forth. The framework pursues the MVC design and has in-built components to manage HTTP requests, reactions, sessions, and cookies. The ticketing system is one of the most important features of Web2py. The system issues a ticket to the user whenever an error occurs; this encourages the client to follow the mistake and its status.
Furthermore, it offers security from common vulnerabilities such as XSS, Injection Faults, CSRF, and Malicious File Execution. Using the MD5 or HMAC+SHA-512 hash algorithms protects the stored passwords.
While talking about the best Python frameworks, CherryPy can’t be ignored. Available under the BSD license, this open-source, object-oriented framework follows a minimalistic approach. Like Flask, it aims to provide basic framework functionality and quickly get out of the way.
Any CherryPy-powered web app is a standalone Python application with its own embedded multi-strung server (something that remains on the wishlist of Flask) and runs on any operating system with support for Python (including Linux/Unix, Windows, and Mac). Such an app can be deployed anywhere an ordinary Python app can run.
Additionally, it has tools for caching, encoding, authorization and supports documentation tasks such as profiling, testing, and coverage by default. If you’re building RESTful services mostly, CherryPy is a better fit than Flask. More than 17 years old, CherryPy has matured nicely and is suitable for small and large applications alike.
Built on up loop, Sanic is a web framework and a Python 3.6+ web server that’s written for offering fast HTTP responses via asynchronous request handling.
Sanic makes use of async/await syntax, making the code non-blocking and speedy. During a benchmark test with 1 process and a hundred connections, it handled as many as 33,342 requests per sec.
This mega framework of Python underpins validation and directing. It is perfect for building huge web applications (such as CMSs), prototyping an idea, and API projects. The most desirable aspect of the Pyramid is that it can be utilized for both easy and difficult projects.
Although lightweight, there are many resources available to extend Pyramid’s abilities as per the requirements call for. Highly valued among experienced Python developers, Pyramid has been adopted by tech giants like Mozilla, Yelp, Dropbox, and SurveyMonkey.
Known for its security arrangements, this web framework makes it easy to set up and check access control records. Its Traversal framework for mapping URLs to code is another great functionality that needs to be mentioned here as it makes it simple to develop RESTful APIs.
This is a Python web framework and offbeat framework library that is built specifically to handle asynchronous processes. By using non-blocking network I/O, Tornado can scale to 10,000+ open connections, making it ideal for long polling, WebSockets, and other apps that require a long-lived connection to each user.
Its main features comprise built-in support for user confirmation, high performance, real-time services, non-blocking HTTP customers, Python-based web templating language, and so forth.